Thanks for the question!
The first thing you need to ask yourself when playing over a new song is "What key is this song in?".
When you've figured that out, you can use the pentatonic scale of that key. For instance, if the song is in A minor, you can use the A minor pentatonic scale (which is the same as C major pentatonic, since A minor is the relative minor for C major).
I think what you're really asking about though, is if you can use different minor pentatonic scales over each chord, much like we talked about in the lesson (but we talked about major pentatonic scales).
And the answer is Yes you can!
For instance.. if you play over a song in C major, and the chord E minor shows up, you can definitely use the E minor pentatonic over that chord. This will outline the changes even more than using the C major pentatonic (or A minor, ,same thing)..
And if a D minor chord shows up, you can use the D minor pentatonic, and if a A minor chord shows up you can obviously use the A minor pentatonic.
So rather than just using the C major pentatonic (or A minor pentatonic, same notes) over a song in C major or A minor - try using the pentatonic scale from the root of the chord you're playing over. This is a concept that works and will outline the changes more.
Note: All the notes of Am pentatonic, Em pentatonic, Dm pentatonic is actually within the key of the C major scale, (or A minor scale). So you'll never get outside of the key, you'll just outline each chord more playing this way. It's a cool concept!
Another thing that I like to use to get another flavour is for instance, if you're playing over an A minor chord (and we're in the key of A minor), try using a minor pentatonic scale up a 5th from the chord you're playing over. So over Am, that would be a E minor pentatonic scale. This gives you some other flavours and sounds! It will give you an Am11 sound... And it's really nice to hear that 9 (B note) over that chord! Try it out!
Have a wonderful day!